The Welding and Robot is an industrial robot engaged in welding (including cutting and spraying). According to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) industrial robots as standard Welding and Robot, industrial robots are a versatile, reproducible, Manipulator, with three or more programmable axes for Industrial automation. In order to adapt to different uses, the robot's last axis of the mechanical interface, usually a connecting flange, can be attached to a different tool or end effector. The Welding and Robot is a welding tool, which can be welded, cut or thermally sprayed, in the end of the industrial robot.
With the development of electronic technology, computer technology, numerical control and robot technology, automatic Welding and Robot, since the beginning of the 1960s for the production, its technology has become increasingly mature, mainly has the following advantages:
1) to stabilize and improve the quality of welding, welding quality can be reflected in the form of numerical;
2) to improve labor productivity;
3) to improve the labor intensity of workers, can work in a harmful environment;
4) Reduced requirements for workers' operating techniques;
5) to shorten the product replacement of the preparation cycle, reduce the corresponding equipment investment.
Therefore, in all walks of life has been widely used.
Welding and Robot mainly include robots and welding equipment in two parts. The robot consists of the robot body and the control cabinet (hardware and software). The welding equipment, arc welding and spot welding, for example, by the welding power supply (including its control system), wire feeder (arc welding), welding gun (clamp) and other components. For intelligent robots should also have a sensing system, such as laser or camera sensors and their control devices. Figures 1a and b show the basic composition of arc Welding and Robot and spot Welding and Robot.
The world's Welding and Robot is basically a joint robot, the vast majority of six axes. Among them, 1, 2, 3 axis can be the end of the tool to a different space position, and 4,5,6 axis to solve the different requirements of the tool posture. The mechanical structure of the Welding and Robot body is mainly in two forms: one for the parallelogram structure, one for the lateral (pendulum) structure, as shown in Figure 2a, b. The main advantage of the side-mounted (pendulum) structure is that the upper and lower arms have a large range of activities so that the working space of the robot can reach almost one sphere. Therefore, this robot can be inverted in the rack to work, to save the area, to facilitate the flow of surface objects. However, this side-mounted robot, 2,3 axis for the cantilever structure, reducing the rigidity of the robot, generally applicable to the smaller load of the robot for arc welding, cutting or spraying. The parallelogram robot has its upper arm driven by a rod. The rod and the lower arm form a parallelogram of two sides. Hence the name. Early development of parallelogram robot work space is relatively small (limited to the front of the robot), it is difficult to upside down work. However, the new parallelogram robot (parallel robot) developed since the late 1980s has been able to extend the working space to the top, back and bottom of the robot, and there is no problem of the rigidity of the robot. This structure is not only suitable for light and also suitable for heavy-duty robots. In recent years, spot Welding and Robot (load 100 ~ 150kg) mostly use parallel tetraloid form of the robot.
Each of the two robots is a rotary motion, so the servo motor through the cycloid (RV) reducer (1 ~ 3 axis) and harmonic reducer (1 ~ 6 axis) drive. Before the mid-80s, for the electric drive of the robots are using DC servo motor, and since the late 80s, countries have switched to AC servo motor. As the AC motor without carbon brush, dynamic characteristics, so that the new robot is not only the accident rate is low, and maintenance-free time greatly increased, plus (minus) speed is also fast. Some of the new lightweight robots with a load of less than 16 kg have a maximum moving speed of up to 3 m / s, with a high positioning accuracy and a small vibration. At the same time, the robot control cabinet also switch to 32-bit microcomputer and the new algorithm, so that it has a self-optimizing path function, the trajectory is closer to the teaching track.
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